# Segment 16. Multiple Hypotheses

## Contents

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Links to the slides: PDF file or PowerPoint file

### Problems

#### To Calculate

1. Simulate the following: You have M=50 p-values, none actually causal, so that they are drawn from a uniform distribution. Not knowing this sad fact, you apply the Benjamini-Hochberg prescription with $\displaystyle \alpha=0.05$ and possibly call some discoveries as true. By repeated simulation, estimate the probability of thus getting N wrongly-called discoveries, for N=0, 1, 2, and 3.

2. Does the distribution that you found in problem 1 depend on M? On $\displaystyle \alpha$ ? Derive its form analytically for the usual case of $\displaystyle \alpha \ll 1$ ?

#### To Think About

1. Suppose you have M independent trials of an experiment, each of which yields an independent p-value. Fisher proposed combining them by forming the statistic

$\displaystyle S = -2\sum_{i=0}^{i=M}\log(p_i)$

Show that, under the null hypothesis, S is distributed as $\displaystyle \text{Chisquare}(2M)$ and describe how you would obtain a combined p-value for this statistic.

2. Fisher is sometimes credited, on the basis of problem 1, with having invented "meta-analysis", whereby results from multiple investigations can be combined to get an overall more significant result. Can you see any pitfalls in this?

### Class Activity

Here is John's written up solution: Pvalue Examples Solutions.